A Paleo-style diet (30% carbs, 30% protein, 40% fat- no dairy, lots of veg, lean meats, fish, nuts & seeds) was shown to reduce biomarkers for insulin resistance in postmenopausal women as compared to a low fat diet.
We’ve known this Paleo benefit for some time now, but what is particularly interesting to me regarding this study, was that they looked at production of fatty acids and desaturase enzymes associated with insulin resistance. Insulin has been demonstrated to increase fatty acid synthase (FAS) and desaturases- the enzymes that add double bonds to fats. In someone with hyperinsulinemia-associated hypertriglyceridemia, we see FAS cause a significant bump in the long chain saturated fatty acids myristic, palmitic and steric (insulin-driven fatty acid synthesis FAR outweighs the impact of ingesting saturated fats). The desaturases (specifically delta 9 desaturase) add double bonds to the saturates, causing a bump in such fatty acids as palmitoleic. Delta 6 desaturase increases production of the pro-inflammatory arachidonic acid and others.
Researchers demonstrated that women who were on the Paleo diet had a far healthier fat profile (despite higher fat intake) than the control group who were on a LOW FAT diet.