KARA FITZGERALD, ND completed a post-doctorate in nutritional biochemistry/laboratory science with Richard Lord, Ph.D. Author: Case Studies in Integrative and Functional Medicine, contributing author: Laboratory Evaluations for Integrative and Functional Medicine; IFM’s Textbook for Functional Medicine. She lectures globally on functional medicine; is on faculty at IFM and practices in Connecticut.

Top Tips for Laboratory Testing in Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE)

Introduction to Tongue Nutrient Diagnosis in Functional Medicine

“Red, raw tongue; red, raw gut.” —Jeghers, New England Journal of Medicine, 1942. In 1942 it was understood that what was happening in the gut was often reflected in the tongue. A red, irritated tongue was thought to mirror a red, irritated gut. This was seen in B-vitamin deficiencies, glossitis and ileitis. Simply correcting the B deficiency…

Cass Nelson-Dooley, MS

Comparing the Oral and Colon Microbiomes-Abstract

Commentary From Cass Nelson-Dooley (Podcast on Oral Microbiome): This a great study about the Human Microbiome Project comparing microbes through ALL points of the GI tract. It revealed some interesting things about normal, healthy subjects. For instance, they have oral bacterial pathogens, but no disease! This finding disputes the one bug-one disease paradigm (Koch’s Postulates). …

Nutrition Physical Exam: Tongue & Nails Suggest Gut Health

Two of the most useful — and often overlooked — components of the nutrition physical exam are the tongue and fingernails. Together, abnormal findings can often be sourced to gut. In this blog, I’m presenting a case where tongue and nails were extremely useful in providing clear treatment direction. Next month, I’ll give some additional…